By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen
Major development has happened over the last few years in machine applied sciences and those are surveyed during this new quantity. incorporated are Si/(Si-Ge) heterojunctions for high-speed built-in circuits, Schottky-barrier arrays in Si and Si-Ge alloys for infrared imaging, III-V quantum-well detector buildings operated within the heterodyne mode for high-data-rate communications, and III-V heterostructures and quantum-wells for infrared emissions.
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Additional info for Advances in Research and Development, Volume 23: Modeling of Film Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (Thin Films)
In this system the reactant partial pressure is proportional to flow rate; the solid line shows that the expression in Eq. 5Ssm, in excellent agreement with Robbins et al. (114). The total layer growth rate shows a more complex behavior. Increasing the germanium fraction of the layer increases the hydrogen desorption rate, causing an initial rapid increase in the growth rate. The growth rate decreases tbr higher Gc Sil_XEPITAXIAL LAYER GROWTH AND APPLICATI()N T() INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 39 FIG. 19.
This is analogous to the behavior of the other column V species As and Sb in MBE. A final difficulty is a consequence of the chemistry of the phosphorus on the surface. Phosphorus usually forms three bonds; consequently when it is incorporated into a silicon dimer at the surface, one active site is removed from the surface. For high phosphorus coverages the surface consists mainly of S i - - P and P - - P dimers (132) and the growth rate is dramatically reduced when hydride reactants are used. The reduction in growth rate is significant for silicon doping concentrations of order 10 ~8cm -3 (133).
UHV conditions can be attained in the growth chamber (water vapor and oxygen partial pressures less than 10 ~0torr). However, the geometry of the UHV/CVD reactor makes it impractical to implement most analytic techniques. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is typically provided to monitor vacuum conditions and sometimes can provide additional insight into the growth process (88). Other reactors have been reported that are also capable of achieving UHV base pressures but which operate under somewhat different conditions during growth.
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