By P N Paleĭ; D I Ri︠a︡bchikov; Mark Moiseevich Seni︠a︡vin; Institut geokhimii i analiticheskoĭ khimii im. V.I. Vernadskogo
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Extra info for Analytical chemistry of uranium
U3O8 is formed by oxidation of many uranium compounds like UO2, uranium salts, and metallic uranium when heated in air (dry or moist) above 800°C–900°C or when UO3 loses oxygen upon heating above 500°C. The reactions of U3O8 with dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids are slow even upon heating, but addition of an oxidizing agent like nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide accelerates dissolution. Alkaline solutions do not affect U3O8 and carbonate solutions selectively leach the hexavalent components (Galkin 1966).
But as the quality of UOC obtained by precipitation from acid leach is not very good ion exchange and solvent extraction are used in most plants nowadays. Precipitation from carbonate leaching produces a reasonably pure uranium concentrate. A detailed description of these processes and the operational and the economic considerations is beyond the scope of this book and can be found elsewhere (Grenthe 2006). There are two other aspects that should be mentioned here that may directly affect the choice of the milling process.
The UOC is also referred to as yellow cake—though not yellow (usually grayish black) and certainly not a cake. Milling involves mechanical (grinding), physical (roasting), and chemical (leaching) operations to achieve this objective, as discussed here. The ore arriving at the mill is first crushed and ground. Physical preconcentration methods are often used to enhance the uranium content in ores that contain low levels of uranium. These may include manual or automatic sorting of lumps, flotation, and/or gravimetric differentiation where particles containing uranium are concentrated in the top phase or sink to the bottom, depending on the mineral and milling process.
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