In-Circuit Testing by John T. Bateson

By John T. Bateson

The target of this article is to extend your realizing of the equipment hired for bettering the standard of revealed circuit forums (PCBs) in a realistic production setting, via discussing published circuit board faults and the try out techniques applied to realize those faults. this article emphasizes in-circuit checking out as a primary attempt and diagnostic process. try out innovations are defined - imposing sensible board testers, in-circuit board testers, in-circuit analyzers, and loaded­ board shorts testers. additionally mentioned are in-circuit tester's undefined, software program, repair turing, and programming. particular awareness has been given to the in-circuit tester's functions and boundaries, positive factors and advantages, benefits and downsides. bankruptcy five, as a part of the entire construction checking out approach, discusses transform stations, community­ ing, and try out region administration. bankruptcy eight is dedicated to discussing the advantages derived by way of making use of in-circuit trying out within the provider fix enviornment. this article concludes with chapters on seller investiga­ tion and a monetary justification. extra emphasis is put on having layout engineering collect an curiosity in manufacturability, testability, and the significance of consulting with production early within the layout technique. This booklet is designed for ease of studying and comprehension for all degrees of curiosity: ATE scholars, fust-time ATE clients, in addition to these enthusiastic about attempt, production, qc or coverage, creation, engineering, and management.

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Once a DDT/Tester Interface has been proved, the registration problem appears to be most susceptible to wearing tooling pins and/or enlarged or miscentered PCB tooling holes. Insufficient test fixture actuation may not provide enough force for the test probe to cut through the target node pad oxidization, thus making poor electrical contact, or the vacuum CFM may not be sufficient to hold the PCB firmly on the test probes during the test sequence. Again, UUT /Test Verification may help identify this problem when it occurs.

The first recommendation is to change the nominal component value in the amount of the average offset. A second solution is to expand the upper test tolerances limit while reducing the lower test tolerance limit. Take the same case, except the component failed in-circuit just below the lower tolerance limit. The component out-of-circuit measured value was in the middle of the specification range. The same component on a previously passed PCB measured in-circuit values clustered just above the lower tolerance limit, but upon removing and measuring out-of-circuit, the component value was just below the upper specification limit.

This by no means is an acceptable standard, merely a meeting of the minds of a group of people. However, the point is that unverifiable faults exists. From the in-circuit benchmark, Rob learned on analyzing his data base that 15-25 PCBs containing known faults are quite sufficient for any benchmark. All in-circuit testers are not the same. A test methodology may be acceptable for one type of PCB and totally unacceptable for another type of PCB, and there is a production integration time for any tester where its value thresholds are tuned to meet the need.

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In-Circuit Testing by John T. Bateson
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