Late Eighteenth Century European Scientists. Volume 2 by R. C. Olby

By R. C. Olby

Past due Eighteenth Century eu Scientists is an account of the awesome growth made by means of eu scientists on the shut of the eighteenth century within the fields of chemistry, electrical energy, astronomy, and botany. Seven scientists are profiled: Jean Lamarck, Joseph Koelreuter, Antoine Lavoisier, Henry Cavendish, Alessandro Volta, James Watt, and William Herschel. In picking out those scientists, the publication emphasizes the subsequent concerns: the necessity to be consultant, to teach the distinction among these whose paintings is basically experimental and people whose paintings is speculative, and to incorporate a subject matter which exhibits the response of technological know-how on expertise and of expertise on society.

Comprised of 7 chapters, this ebook starts with Lamarck, whose perspectives, rather on physics and chemistry, provide an image of conventional technological know-how through the mid-eighteenth century. the 1st bankruptcy seems at his existence, writings, and paintings in fields starting from meteorology and geology to botany, zoology, and evolution. the subsequent bankruptcy makes a speciality of Koelreuter and his experiments on pollen, ovule, pollination, fertilization, and hybridization. The dialogue then turns to Cavendish, Herschel, and Volta, who've been incorporated during this monograph essentially simply because they hired statement and test so effectively and for that reason made vital discoveries. Lavoisier has been selected as a result of his genius for taking a look at recognized proof and clean discoveries from a brand new perspective. Watt has been chosen for you to exhibit the technological and sociological problems which are occupied with utilizing a brand new resource of strength to and commerce.

This e-book should be of curiosity to either scholars and scientists.

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Late Eighteenth Century European Scientists. Volume 2

Overdue Eighteenth Century eu Scientists is an account of the amazing development made via ecu scientists on the shut of the eighteenth century within the fields of chemistry, electrical energy, astronomy, and botany. Seven scientists are profiled: Jean Lamarck, Joseph Koelreuter, Antoine Lavoisier, Henry Cavendish, Alessandro Volta, James Watt, and William Herschel.

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These observations gave support to what is clearly a neat idea or model of the hereditary process. To the preformationist embry­ ology posed no problems, it was to him just a process of unfolding and enlarging of what was already there in miniature. But the theory also posed serious difficulties. Can one really conceive of all the individuals of one species being present in the first indivi­ dual of that species ? And in bisexually reproducing organisms, which sex carries the genetic series ? The spermists said that it was the male of the species; the ovists said that it was the female.

Nor is it a union of fluids. It is the union of the chromosomes from the nucleus in the pollen tube with the chromosomes from the nucleus in the ovule. Hence, it is a precise process. A definite number of chromosomes from pollen grain and ovule are involved. Koelreuter was right when he subjected this process of fertilization to a quantitative experiment but un­ fortunately his experiment was too superficial to reveal all the factors in the situation. Others after him were misled in the same way since they, too, were ignorant of the existence and function of pollen tubes.

Pollination He watched flowers carefully to see how pollen is transported from stamen to stigma. He classified his results as follows: (1) Species which bear staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant. The pollen is liberated by oscillations produced by the wind or by vibrations caused by the landing or taking-off of insects. (2) Species in which staminate and pistillate flowers are born on separate plants. g. hazel and birch. (3) Species bearing hermaphrodite flowers (stamens and stig­ mas in each flower).

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Late Eighteenth Century European Scientists. Volume 2 by R. C. Olby
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