By William F. Hosford, Robert M. Caddell

This e-book is helping the engineer comprehend the foundations of steel forming and research forming problems--both the mechanics of forming methods and the way the houses of metals engage with the methods. during this 3rd variation, a complete bankruptcy has been dedicated to forming restrict diagrams and numerous facets of stamping and one other on different sheet forming operations. Sheet checking out is roofed in a separate bankruptcy. insurance of sheet steel houses has been increased. attention-grabbing end-of-chapter notes were further all through, in addition to references. greater than two hundred end-of-chapter difficulties also are incorporated.

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**Additional resources for Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, 4th Edition **

**Sample text**

In 1868, Tresca presented two notes to the French Academy (Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, 1864, p. 754). From these, Saint-Venant established the first theory of plasticity based on the assumptions that 1) plastic deformation does not change the volume of a material, 2) directions of principal stresses and principal strains coincide, 3) the maximum shear stress at a point is a constant. The Tresca criterion is also called the Guest or the “maximum shear stress” criterion. In letters to William Thompson, John Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) proposed that “strain energy of distortion” was critical, but he never published this idea and it was forgotten.

Low-carbon steels typically have an upper yield stress (point A) and a lower yield stress (B). 2) is defined as the yield strength. 3 for plane-strain deformation with ε y = 0 and σz = 0. 5. In this figure the εx is normalized by the ratio of the yield strength to the modulus. Note that 95% of the change from elastic to plastic deformation occurs when the plastic strain is 3 times the elastic strain. For a material that strain hardens, there is additional elastic deformation after yielding. The total strain is the sum of the elastic and plastic parts, ε = εe + εp .

Thus maximum load and necking start when the strain equals strain-hardening exponent. The true stress at maximum load can be expressed as σu = K εun = K n n . 13) Since su A0 = σu Au = (K n n )Au , su = (K n n )Au /A0 . Substituting Au /A0 = exp(−εu ), su = K (n/e)n , where e is the base of natural logarithms. 5, the tensile strength was experimen- tally measured as 28,000 psi. 25 and K = 50,000? 25 = 27,500 psi. This is within 2% so it is reasonable in view of errors in establishing n and K. 20 MPa.