By Cathal J. Nolan
The Age of Wars of faith observed navies, armies, armed service provider businesses, and mercenaries conflict each other and native potentates in lots of lands and alongside various seashores. Wars of faith have been fought in and among all of the significant religions and civilizations, from Europe to China, in Africa, and within the remoted Americas, blending factors of knightly idealism, mercenary greed, and competing claims of divine sanction. This unprecedented paintings lines the extreme upheavals of the interval in army expertise, competing theologies, and civilizational switch that have been led to by means of, or impinged upon, army clash. It deals approximately 2,000 discrete yet cross-referenced entries on cultural, army, non secular and political background, in addition to geography, biography, and army literature.Close to 2,000 entries supply exact info at the significant occasions, locations, battles, figures, applied sciences, and ideas one needs to understand to start to make feel of the prior six centuries of world conflicts. notwithstanding in particular ferocious and severe, the Wars of Reformation and Counter-Reformation fought by means of Europeans from the fifteenth via seventeenth centuries have been infrequently distinct in global or army heritage. The Byzantine Empire, bastion of Christian Orthodoxy, staggered to the tortuous finish of its lengthy clash with the Ottoman Empire, the good strength of the Sunni Muslim international. The Ottomans, in flip, have been nonetheless engaged in an both old intra-Muslim conflict, among Sunnis and Shi'ites. In India, the Hindu Rajputs and Marathas, and likewise the Sikhs, equipped armies round spiritual groups to throw off the Muslim Yoke (Mughul Empire), and in addition fought opposed to Christian invaders from Europe. As for the remoted Americas, principles of divine kingship sustained through robust priesthoods and non secular struggle additionally prevailed, as exemplified via the Inca and Aztec empires.
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Extra info for The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization Two Volumes (Greenwood Encyclopedias of Modern World Wars)
In and of itself, war is usually morally agnostic: it has upheld governing elites whether they were just or despotic, or overthrown them in favor of some other set of masters who had advantages in weapons or tactics but not better manners or morals. Yet war has moral significance even if it is often unclear as to moral meaning. Somehow, we know that it matters whether civilians are massacred or protected, whether prisoners of war have their throats cut or are ransomed or paroled. It is important that some men and women of conscience over the centuries have tried to limit or end war, even as others with refined consciences supported some wars as necessary (if nonetheless evil) means to longer-term or wider moral goods.
Such a moment was pending: serial financial and priestly scandals in the Medieval Church had in fact caused fatal damage to Latin Christian unity, not least by leading local princes to become accustomed to the idea of themselves as sovereign—though they did not yet know or use that word in the early modern sense. What was needed to ignite the fires of princely ambition was a match to fall onto the broad tinder of popular religious unrest. The hand that struck the light was Martin Luther’s. The conflagration he started as an argument among priests and monks would end by burning out much of Europe during vicious wars of religion that lasted nearly 150 years.
Jan Hus was burned at the stake by the Church and Empire, but migratory armies of his Hussite followers were eventually pushed out of xlvi Preface: Wars of Religion in History Germany only with great violence. Other forces of rebellion were present throughout Europe, needing only a moment of opportunity born of Catholic division to awake from political dormancy. Such a moment was pending: serial financial and priestly scandals in the Medieval Church had in fact caused fatal damage to Latin Christian unity, not least by leading local princes to become accustomed to the idea of themselves as sovereign—though they did not yet know or use that word in the early modern sense.
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